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Multiphoton Fluorescence Microscopy

Multiphoton microscopy is a fluorescence imgaging technique used frequently in bio-medical applications for images of living-cells. It is a variation of two-photon microscopy. Usually MIR/IR light is used to excite fluorescent dyes in cells, in which case, two photons are absorbed, and one photon of a shorter wavelength is emitted, causing fluorescence.

The usage of MIR/IR light minimises scattering from tissue of the cells examined. Two/Multiple-photon absorption also allows background signal suppression techniques. These together increases penetration depth of microscopy. Compare to conventional confocal microscopy, it is capable of deeper penetration, more efficient detection and less phototoxicity.

Narrow-Bandwidth Sensors

Fiber optic sensors measures the in-situ modulation of the optical properties of light travelling in the fiber, e.g. wavelength, intensity, frequency etc., which is caused by an external signal. Fiber optic sensing using narrow-bandwidth lasers as light source uses Frequency-Modulated Continuous-Wave (FMCW) technique for the transmission of optical signal and detection of the optical response. Inteferometry used in conjuection with the narrow-bandwidth sensors allows extraction of measurement with extremely high sensitivity and good signal to noise ratio (SNR) far beyond the ability of conventional fiber optical sensors.

Femtosecond laser inscription of waveguides on transparent materials

Optical waveguide is a basic component for integrated optics and is widely used in the area of telecommunications and optics research. Femtosecond fiber lasers are becoming a popular source for laser inscription of optical waveguides in transparent materials. It focuses high peak intensity pulsed optical beams a few millimiters below the material's surface, causing a local modification of the material's physical property such as refractive index, linear optical abosorption etc.. Compare with conventional fabrication methods, Femtosecond laser direct inscription of waveguide on transparent materials allows contactless writing of the waveguides at a selected depth inside the material with a very small working area (below diffraction limit for multi-photon cases) and very high precision.

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